Breathing is the third clinical assessment and management along the Primary survey. Following the same pathophysiological issues as in Airway, if the patient can’t breathe effectively/adequately, or if breathing stops, then gaseous exchange is reduced or halts, the body starts becoming hypoxic and hypercapnic, brain injury begins, followed by cellular death, and ultimate irreversible damage and cardiac arrest occurs. Here we’ll have a look at what can be done to help manage a patients’ breathing.

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