Traumatic Facial Injury part 2

Zygomaticomaxillary fractures (broken cheekbone/upper jaw): The zygomas (cheekbones) are attached at several points to the upper jaw (maxilla) and bones of the skull. Fractures to the cheekbone(s) might also involve breaks in other facial bones nearby. Signs and symptoms can include:

  • Flatness of the cheek
  • Altered sensation underneath the eye on the affected side
  • Problems with eyesight
  • Pain with jaw movement

Orbital fractures (eye socket): There are three main types of orbital fractures:

  • Orbital rim fracture: The outer rim is the thickest part of the eye socket. It requires a lot of force to break the bone. Many other injuries may accompany an orbital rim fracture, such as damage to the optic nerve.
  • Blowout fractures: The orbital rim remains intact in this case, but a crack forms in the thin bone at the lower part of the eye socket. The eye muscles and other structures can become entrapped in the break and prevent the eyeball from moving normally.
  • Direct orbital floor fracture: This is a rim fracture that extends into the lower socket.

Signs and Symptoms can include:

  • A black eye
  • Redness or bleeding in the white of the eye
  • Blurry or decreased vision
  • Numbness in the forehead, eyelids, cheek, or upper lip/teeth
  • Swelling of the cheek or forehead

Mandible (lower jaw): The mandible holds the lower teeth in place and moves when you are talking or chewing. Fractures of the lower jaw affect the sections that supports teeth and surrounding structures. Signs and symptoms can include:

  • Pain
  • Bruising, swelling, or tenderness along the jaw or below the ear
  • Inability to bring the teeth together properly (malocclusion)
  • Bruising under the tongue (almost always indicates a jaw fracture)
  • Missing or loose teeth
  • Numbness in the lower lip or chin

Mid-face (Le Fort fractures): Blunt force trauma tends to cause fractures along three lines of weakness in the mid-face. One characteristic of all types of Le Fort fractures is the fracture of the pterygoid processes, part of the sphenoid bone. There are three main types of Le Fort fractures, but there may be individual variations.

Le Fort I: The fracture extends above the upper jaw (maxilla).

Le Fort II: The fracture extends from the lower part of one cheek, below the eye, across the bridge of the nose, and to the lower part of the other cheek.

Le Fort III: The fracture extends across the bridge of the nose and the bones surrounding the eyes.

Signs and symptoms within the mid-face can include:

  • Pain
  • Deformity
  • Swelling